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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Language: English Spanish. The present study was conducted with the aim of constructing and validating a short form of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory NPI. The NPI is the most widely-applied measure for the assessment of narcissistic personality traits and, therefore, it is of great relevance for many research questions in personality and social psychology.
Additionally, we examined its invariance across age groups and sex, as well as its reliability, as well as construct and predictive validity -comparing it to the NPI Our indicate that the NPI-8 is a valid and reliable measure of narcissistic personality with minimal losses compared to the item version. Particularly where brevity and an economical assessment are desired, the NPI-8 should be considered.
Narcissism is generally understood as pronounced self-involvement Freud, In psychological research it has been regarded as both, a personality trait and as a clinically relevant disorder Hermann et al. The present study deals with narcissism in the former sense. In their Extended Agency Model, Campbell and Foster consider a of fundamental qualities of the narcissistic self: a strongly positive self-concept, to the point of exaggeration, pronounced agency, feeling of uniqueness compared to others, selfishness, and achievement orientation.
The NPI and were constructed as more economical, brief measures of narcissism Ames et al. They are, however, not acceptable in terms of model fit and factorial validity. Zemojtel-Piotrowska et al. However, model fit was also questionable in two of three samples. Grijalva et al. These scales were, however, constructed ad hoc for specific research des and never evaluated psychometrically.
To this end, we constructed and compared subsets containing four items per scale and tested the optimal solution in confirmatory factor analysis CFAreliability analysis, as well as an investigation of measurement invariance across age groups and respondent sex. We chose to analyze these two sociodemographic variables because they are not modifiable compared to more fluctuating variables employment and income. Other grouping variables, such as employment status or income, should be investigated in future studies. In addition, we examined the correlation patterns with related constructs.
Namely, we expected negative associations between narcissistic leadership and depression as well as overall psychological distress Spangenberg et al. In addition, we hypothesized positive correlations between depersonalization and narcissism - in particular exhibitionistic tendencies Frances et al. Furthermore, we investigated the NPIs predictive power of several external criteria, including appearance orientation.
Here we expected positive associations between narcissism investments into self-beautification Davis et al. Households were selected via random route procedure and household members were selected using the Kish selection grid. The goal of this procedure was to obtain a sample that would be representative of the German general population in terms of distribution of participant sex, age, and education.
Descriptive statistics are reported in Table 1. Only participants with sufficient command of the German language and at the age of 18 or older were included. All participants were interviewed face-to-face by an USUMA employee, who assessed their language skills prior to the interview. After being informed of the general purpose of the survey, participants filled out the questionnaires mentioned below. Prior to participating, all participants were informed of the general purpose and procedure of the investigation and that data storage would be anonymized.
In addition, they received a detailed data protection statement. The study included questionnaires inquiring into mental well-being of respondents. However, since no medical or psychological interventions were applied, there was no risk involved for participants. In accordance with German law, all participants gave their verbal consent to participate.
The Narcissistic Personality Inventory Spangenberg et al. It consists of 15 items using a binary forced-choice response format. Participants select between two phrases, representing a narcissistic e. Some of the items have to be reverse-coded see Table 2 before obtaining the subscale scores by summing up the item scores. Individual items inquire into the frequency of symptoms, ranging from 0 to 3 with varied phrasing. In addition, we posed several yes-or-no questions at participants to examine what specific measures of beautification they are employing e.
We used R version 3. We then used stuarts bruteforce option to test all possible subsets, consisting of two four-item scales, in the exploratory subsample. Moreover, we constrained the models to be strictly invariant across participant sex. We then tested the resulting solution in the confirmatory subsample. All remaining analyses, such as the tests for measurement invariance across participant sex and age, were conducted using the complete sample.
Since the data format is dichotomous, we conducted factor analysis using robust diagonally weighted least squares estimation and theta parametrization WLSMV in lavaan; Li, For ordered categorical data, this is done using the formula provided by Green and YangFormula However, it should be noted that because of the dichotomous nature of the indicator variable invariance of the item intercepts -otherwise known as strong invariance- cannot be assessed because constraints are already necessary for the identification of the baseline configural model, we thus focus on configural, weak, and strict invariance models.
The remaining items and descriptive statistics are provided in Table 2. As it was to be expected, most items have higher proportions of negation vs. The of this analysis are reported in Table 4. This is evidence for the stability of the NPI-8s psychometric properties.
Next, we tested for invariance between groups of age and sex. We report correlations with related measures in Table 5. As hypothesized, we found small to moderate negative associations between narcissistic personality traits and depression and psychological distress in general. In addition, we found a small positive relationship with depersonalization. The evaluation of external criteria revealed that participants who spent more time and money on improving their appearance scored higher on both NPI subscales. Cell sizes for some of the groups were rather small, specifically for the group of respondents who had aesthetic plastic surgery done on them.
Percentile ranks denote the percentage of respondents exhibiting an equal or lower score. In addition, those with full employment vs. To further demonstrate the validity of the shortform NPI-8, we compared it to the item version of the scale from which it was constructed. First, we calculated the overlap between the short and long versions of the subscales. This is not surprising, as -in the case of the Grandiose Exhibitionism subscale- only a single item remained.
We then compared the pattern of related measures between the two NPI versions. Given the large sample size, this should be considered evidence that the external validity of the NPI has been retained in the 8-item version. Naturally, the sum score will be larger for the NPI, and so the following analyses are based on the mean score for each of the subscales.
In Table 3we present normative percentile values for comparisons with the German general population. We derived these values were from the full sample and split the table by age and sex to allow for a more precise classification. Based on work by Spangenberg et al. Given the fact that it only consists of four items per scale, reliability should be considered good for the former and acceptable for the latter of the two subscales.
We present evidence for strict invariance across respondent sex and age groups.
This finding in particular is of relevance, since measurement invariance for these sociodemographic variables has not yet been shown for any German measure of narcissistic personality. The norm values established in the present study allow for comparisons of individual scores with the German population. In terms of its validity arguments, we found many of the hypothesized correlations between one or both of the NPI-8s subscales and measures of psychological distress. The Grandiose Exhibitionism subscale, on the other hand, was mainly correlated with depersonalization experiences Frances et al.
In terms of predictive validity, we found that both subscales were minor predictors of time and money spent on ones appearance, which is consistent with findings with regard to appearance orientation Davis et al.
In an exploratory analysis, we found moderate differences in narcissism between groups of education and employment, that is, individuals with higher levels of education and those with full vs. This fits well with research demonstrating links between narcissism and employment as well as achievement Back et al. Naturally, the removal of items will lead to the loss of some explained variance compared to the original scale. However, it became evident that the correlational patterns of the NPI with related scales were reproduced by the NPI-8 with only inificant deviations with regard to the association strengths.
It should be noted that we utilized CFA, which is based on structural equation modeling. We chose the CFA approach because the scale construction algorithm provided in stuart does not have, to our knowledge, an equivalent in IRT, yet. This means that the preselection that took place for the item version is assumed in the present investigation.
One consequence of this could be a smaller of latent factors. Since Spangenberg et al. Nonetheless, it should be taken into when deing a study that the NPI-8 is a screening instrument and that longer versions will likely provide a broader assessment of narcissistic personality.
In all, the NPI-8 can be recommended as valid and - given its brevity- reliable measure of narcissistic personality traits. It will be particularly useful in largescale surveys and studies that necessitate an economical form of assessment. EB deed the study and supervised the data collection. BS did the statistical analyses. All authors participated in writing the article, gave valuable information while working on this publication, and have read and approved the final version of the draft.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Int J Psychol Res Medellin. Bjarne Schmalbach 1. Markus Zenger 2. Ana Nanette Tibubos 1.Narcisstic personality inventory
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The Narcissistic Personality Inventory 8: Validation of a Brief Measure of Narcissistic Personality