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Singh, D. Sinha, M. Bari, A. Ismail and U. Saline soil affected area ha in project districts of Southern Bangladesh 4 Table 2. Rice area ha in project districts of Southern Bangladesh during different seasons 8 Table 3.
Flow Chart showing the methodology of site suitability analysis 11 Maps Map 1. Location on project districts in Bangladesh 2 Map 2. Rice Growing Area in project districts, Bangladesh 7. The project aims at improving food security in these districts using high yielding rice varieties equipped with tolerances to prevailing stresses.
These twenty districts grow rice in about 2. Twelve out of the above twenty project districts in southern Bangladesh face the problem of soil salinity of various levels. Thus, these salt-tolerant varieties offer a high potential for the expansion of rice cultivation to new salt-affected areas and also to increase rice production in low to moderate saline areas, especially during the Boro season.
For the distribution of salt-tolerant rice seeds in the potential areas, an assessment of upazilas, unions and mauzas suitable for the dissemination of BRRI dhan 47, Binadhan-8 and - 10 rice seeds has been carried out.
In the 65 upazilas of 12 salt-affected districts in South Bangladesh, unions and mauzas have been identified, based on criteria described in the report, where these variety can be cultivated. Also, mauzas with no salinity where other HYVs can be grown, have been shown in these upazilas. It is hoped that this report will be useful in the assessment of upazila-wise seed requirement and the dissemination of salinity tolerant BRRI dhan 47, Binadhan-8 and - 10 and other HYVs in their targeted environments.
We would appreciate receiving feedback on the report. These districts grow rice in about 2. The project aims at contributing to the Government of Bangladesh s efforts in improving national and household food security through enhanced and sustained productivity.
Besides these, other varieties suitable for favorable areas, including BRRI dhan 28, 29, 33, 44, 49 and 50 are also available, which provide higher yields. BRRI dhan 50 is a long grain aromatic rice variety which fetches better market price. Despite these progresses made in the development of high yielding and stress tolerant varieties, several local and low yielding rice varieties are being grown in southern Bangladesh districts due to the lack of knowledge or non-availability of appropriate seeds to farmers.
Thus, there is a need to scale up the production and distribution of high quality seeds to make them available to the farmers on a sitespecific basis, as these varieties can give their full potential yields only when they are planted in the soil and growing environments for which they are best suited.
Twelve out of the twenty project districts in southern Bangladesh faces the problem of soil salinity of various levels. Salinity affects rice crop most during the Boro season as the salt concentration becomes high during the dry season. During the Aus and Aman seasons, the salinity gets diluted due to the monsoon rains and its effect on rice yields is not ificant.
There seems to be good prospects for increasing the rice area and production in these salt-affected districts by using the new salinity tolerant BRRI dhan 47, Binadhan-8 and Currently, BRRI dhan 28 and 29 and some local varieties are popular among the farmers in the Boro season.
However, these varieties either fail or do not provide high yield during the Boro season due to their being sensitive to salinity. For the distribution of salt-tolerant rice seeds in the potential areas during the Boro season, a site suitability analysis has been carried out for BRRI dhan 47, Binadhan-8 and s, unions and upazilas suitable for seed dissemination have been identified as summarized in the present report.
Approximately one-third of the total land area of the country is under tidal excursions. The area affected by soil salinity has been reported to be increasing due to the climate change effect. The salt-affected area increased from about 0.
Due to the influence of cyclonic storms like Sidr, Laila and others leading to salt water intrusion in croplands, about 35, ha new land area has been affected by various degree of salinity during the nine year period of Out of the 20 project districts of southern Bangladesh, 12 districts are affected by the problem of soil salinity. These districts cover approx Mha of salt affected area, spread over in 65 upazilas Table 1. The Soil Resources Development Institute SRDI has also prepared a soil salinity map of Bangladesh, which shows the affected area categorized into the following five map units: Map unit Description 1 Non-saline with some very slight saline soil 2 Very slightly saline with some slight saline soil 3 Slightly saline with some moderately saline soil 4 Strongly saline with some moderately saline soil 5 Very strongly saline with some strongly saline soil The soil salinity map of the project districts with their salinity is shown in Map 2.
In the 12 salt-affected project districts, the cropping intensity is lower than the other 8 non-salinity affected districts. Within these 12 districts, the areas affected with slight to moderate soil salinity mapping unit 1 to 3 on soil salinity map of SRDI has higher cropping intensity as compared to the areas with severe to very severe saline map unit 4 and 5 on the soil salinity map of SRDI. This is because no crop can be grown in the severe to very severe saline areas during the dry season. The area also lacks surface water irrigation facility and the ground water can not be used due to high salt content.
However, the extent of rice in Aus and Boro in the salt-affected areas is much less as compared to Aman, as can be seen in rice growing area map of the project districts Map 3.
The percent area under rice in the three seasons is shown in Table 2. This is because the crop in the salt-affected districts suffer most during the Boro or dry season as the salts come up on the surface when the soil dries up.
The salt-affected areas are predominantly inhabitated by impoverished communities with fewer opportunities for food security and livelihood option. The variety can tolerate salinity level of EC dsm -1 at seedling stage and dsm -1 during the vegetative growth stages. Binadhan IR R is a salt tolerant high yielding rice variety, released by the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA in It is a semi dwarf, early maturing and medium bold grain rice variety and requires days to mature.
It is moderately resistant to bacterial leaf blight, sheath blight, brown plant hopper, stem borer and rice hispa. Under salt stress, maximum grain yield is 5. The variety is salt tolerant upto EC 10 dsm -1 and is suitable for both Boro and Aman. It is a medium duration variety days maturity and can tolerate salt stress of ds m The plants have strong stem, and there is no lodging even in stormy weather.
The variety can be cultivated in both Boro and Aman seasons. It is a semi dwarf cm plant hightmedium duration dayswith medium slender grain and an average yield of 4. The variety is suitable for cultivation in brackish shrimp field. The variety can be grown under salinity with EC dsm BRRI dhan It is a salt tolerant rice variety released in for cultivation as transplanted Aman.
The variety is semi dwarf cm plant hightmedium duration dayswith medium slender grains and an average yield of 4. The variety can be grown under salinity of EC dsm Groundwater quality, if being used for Boro, should be good. Flow chart showing the methodology of site suitability analysis 11 Site specific dissemination of salt-tolerant rice seeds. In the 65 upazilas of the 12 districts, where seeds of these varieties can be distributed, unions and mauzas have been identified. Four upazilas- Monpura in Bhola district, Dacope and Koyra in Khulna district and Shyamnagar in Satkhira district have entire area under severe to very severe soil salinity and hence not suitable for BRRI dhan 47 or,binadhan -8 and Table 3 provides the summary list of upazilas and Table 4 provides the complete list of mauzas.
Table 3. All the mauzas in Pirojpur district are suitable for dissemination of salt tolerant rice varieties and hence the upazila maps of this district are not appended. From the site suitability analysis carried out for these upazilas, it has been estimated that about 0. A part of this area, which is currently lying fallow due to high salt content will have an additional crop of rice, whereas other areas with Boro rice being grown currently with low yields may have an average yield gain of 0.
References Gumma, M. Rice cropping patterns in Bangladesh. Soil Resources Development Institute. Ministry of Agriculture, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Zakaria, Md. Abdullah Aziz, Md. Ismail Hossain, Niaz Md. Farhat Rahman Abstract: The. Bangladesh Agril. Time: Duxbury jmd17 cornell. Zavala yjz1 cornell. FAO-World Bank meeting Bangkok 15 May Location-specific nutrient and crop management in rice farming: mobile phone and web-based decision tools are bringing of research to farmers Roland J.
Alam 1, M. Ashraf, M. Mia 2 and M. In most of Asian countries. Current capabilities in the analysis of climate risks and adaptation strategies in critical areas M. U Jayawardena 1 Origin of rice plant Evidence says in China or in India Species 22 species are documented in the world - 20 wild species and 2 cultivated species.
Area of cultivation II. Environment III. Production of seedlings IV. Oliver 1, M. Talukder and M.Ts dating Bara Chaubaria
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